Local Heart, Global Soul

June 25, 2018

The Cultural And Historical Background…

(photograph © Kiwidutch)

Following yesterday’s post Family Kiwidutch were travelling back to the South Island on the Cook Straight ferry “Aratere”.

On board I see an updated map and information board detailing the route we are taking. In yesterday’s post I looked at as many of the geographical, and points about nature as I could.

In this post I take a look at the cultural and historical information we have been given.

On some parts of the map I see little icons of caldrons: these denote the location of former whaling stations.

The photographs are similar to those of yesterday, attempting to zoom in on various parts of the board so that I could show as much detail as possible.

Some of this information was the same or similar to stuff I have read in the past, but a lot is new to me so it’s nice to be surprised this way. “Kupe and pre-European Maori : Maori oral tradition relates how the great navigator Kupe chased an octopus all the way from Hawaiki to new Zealand. After a great struggle the octopus was finally killed in Whekenui Bay, on Arapawa island near the entrance to Tory Channel. Some local place names are associated with this event.

(photograph © Kiwidutch)

 Taonui-o-kupe (Cape Jackson) refers to Kupe’s long spear, Arapaoa (Arapawa Island) is said to be the scything downward arc described by his weapon, and Kura-a-e-te-au (Tory Channel) refers to the schools of red krill that represent the wheke’s blood. Little is known of early Maori crossings.

the South Island was inhabited early by Waitaha but migration patterns appear to have been all in a north to south direction. By the late 15th century the north Island tribes of Ngati Mamoe, Ngai Tara and Rangitane had all established a peaceful presence in and round the Marlborough Sounds.

Around 1650 they were followed by the more warlike Ngai Tahu, who were eventually to take control of virtually the entire South Island. The initial Ngai Tahu focus in the South Island was Kaihinu, a fortified pa (village) established on Moioio Island in Tory Channel.”

‘Te Rauparaha. – Te Rauparaha was a Ngati Toa fighting chief who led his tribe on its migration south from the Kawhia region. By the mid 1820’s he had established a stronghold on Kapiti Island and Ngati Toa had asserted its dominance over the other iwi (tribes) on the west coast of the lower North Island.

In 1882 Te Rauparaha turned his sights south and initiated a series of incursions to Rangitoto (D’Urville Island and northern Marlborough. And by 1833, Ngati toa effectively controlled the top half of the South Island following the sacking of key Ngai Tahu pa (villages) at Kaikoura, Kaiapoi (near Christchurch) and Onawe (Banks Peninsula).

Although Ngai Tahu subsequently recovered most of this territory, much of the Marlborough Sounds was virtually depopulated as a result of the wholesale slaughter and cannibal feasting that accompanied Te Rauparaha raids. In June 1843 Te Rauparaha was again a key player in the “Wairau Affray”, an unfortunate confrontation between Ngati Toa and a party of European settlers, under a magistrate and captain Arthur Wakefield.

The magistrate intended to arrest Te Rauparaha and his lieutenant Te Rauparaha on charges of arson, in relationship to their attempts to stop the New Zealand Company surveying disputed land. In the event 22 European and 4 (it is thought Maori) lives were lost, the European total including a number taken prisoner and subsequently dispatched by tomahawk.”

‘Captain James Cook: The first European visitor to the Cook Straight area was Abel Tasman in December 1642. However Tasman neither landed nor confirmed the existence of a sea passage east of the Pacific Ocean. Captain James Cook first arrived in Cook Straight during his circumnavigation of the North Island on his first voyage in the “Endeavour”. He entered Queen Charlotte Sound and landed at Ship Cove on 16th January 1770.

(photograph © Kiwidutch)

The Endeavour was careened and Cook claimed the Sound together with adjacent territories in the name of King George III, before departing to continue his circumnavigation of New Zealand on 6th February 1770.

Captain cook spent a total of 100 days at Ship Cover, visiting on five separate occasions over the course of three voyages.

On the second voyage (1773/74) he commanded the ship “Resolution”, accompanied by the “Adventure” under Captain Furneaux. On the third and final voyage (1777),

Cook again sailed the “Resolution”, this time accompanied by the “Discovery”. In December 1773, a party of 10 sailors of the “Adventure” were sent to Grass Cover (Wharehunga Bay) on Apapawa Island to collect scurvy grass. All ten were ambushed, killed and eaten by local Maori.”“Matiu (Somes) Island, Wellington Harbour. In addition to having a rich Maori heritage, Matiu or Somes Island has been at various times a human quarantine station (including a one-man leper colony), an animal quarantine station, an interment camp for enemy aliens during both world wars, a degaussing station for demagnetising ships during WW2, and home to a heavy anti-aircraft artillery battery. The Island is now run by DOC (Department of Conservation) as a scientific and historic reserve.’

“Seals and Birds”. New Zealand fur seas are common throughout the Cook Straight area, with haul out areas at Kapiti island, Mana Island, Pipinui Point Ohau Point to Cape Terawhiti, Tngue point and Sinclair Head/Red rocks. Subantartic fur seals, leopard seals, southern elephant seals are occasional visitors. A wide variety of pelagic and costal sea birds may accompany the ferry. in addition to the ubiquitous black-backed and red-billed gulls, albatross, petrel, shearwaters, terns, gannets, prion and skua may be encountered. Blue penguins and king shags are more commonly seen in the sheltered water of the Marlborough Sounds.”

(photograph © Kiwidutch)

(photograph © Kiwidutch)

(photograph © Kiwidutch)

(photograph © Kiwidutch)

(photograph © Kiwidutch)

(photograph © Kiwidutch)

(photograph © Kiwidutch)

(photograph © Kiwidutch)

(photograph © Kiwidutch)

(photograph © Kiwidutch)

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