Local Heart, Global Soul

March 6, 2017

Casualties Of War, Casualties Of Our Feathered Friends And More…

(photograph © Kiwidutch)

(photograph © Kiwidutch)

During our 2016 visit to Texel’s Eierland lighthouse, I learned that towers and nature do not always mix.

A plaque on the wall reads: “The lighthouse offered safety to seamen, but it was very dangerous for birds.

Thousands of migrating birds used to smash against the lighthouse.

They were attracted by the light, particularly during cloudy, moonless nights. Every morning the lighthouse keeper walked around the building with a wheelbarrow, picking up dead birds.

Later on, a fence was placed around the lamp and the building itself was also illuminated.

Since then, the number of victims has dropped considerably. However the lighthouse continues to attract birds. As a result of this several local owls have learned to come here to hunt them.”

Hmmm, ok, It seems that one bird’s loss is another bird’s gain. Hopefully one day we will learn of a method that  deters birds from coming to the tower at all.
It is not only birds who have met their end here, another plaque tells me: “Hundreds of wrecks have sunk in the shallow waters around Eyerland. Most of them have been documented.

The most important wrecks are shown on this map. The ships that sunk could rarely be saved: the same held true for their crew.

If nothing else, a light beacon would decrease the danger during dark stormy nights. More than enough reason to build the lighthouse on Texel.”
Of course the vast majority of these wrecks occurred in the centuries before radar, sonar and modern technology. There was generally little hope for crews because standard practice was that sailors never learned to swim,  superstitiously believing that learning to do so would prolong their suffering when death by drowning became their fate.

Added to this, heavy clothes, severe weather and extreme cold usually meant that they didn’t stand a chance. This lighthouse has seen many scenes of carnage, be that of beasts of the natural world, soldiers in combat or sailors at sea. It’s possible to get  ticket and walk to the top: we are warned that there are 118 steps and they are very steep. Clearly I am walking that lot in my dreams. I wait below whilst the others go up and enjoy the views. They tell me that they can see a huge amount of the island, but that the wind up there almost has them off their feet. Sheltering in the small space by the door at ground level is clearly a good idea.

(photograph © Kiwidutch)

(photograph © Kiwidutch)

(photograph © Kiwidutch)

(photograph © Kiwidutch)

(photograph © Kiwidutch)

(photograph © Kiwidutch)

(photograph © Kiwidutch)

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(photograph © Kiwidutch)

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(photograph © Kiwidutch)

(photograph © Kiwidutch)

(photograph © Kiwidutch)

(photograph © Kiwidutch)

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(photograph © Kiwidutch)

(photograph © Kiwidutch)

(photograph © Kiwidutch)

(photograph © Kiwidutch)

(photograph © Kiwidutch)

(photograph © Kiwidutch)

(photograph © Kiwidutch)

Wikipedia /Eierland Lighthouse / Texel, The Netherlands.

February 28, 2017

This Air Craft Is 15 Stories High And Is Stratospheric!

(photograph © Kiwidutch)

(photograph © Kiwidutch)

Before we leave the Air Force and War Museum in Texel,  I spy what I first assume to be a life boat.

A closer look determines it to be the “Dutch Viking“, which is the cabin of  a transatlantic high altitude balloon that set a record for the transatlantic crossing on 02 September 1986.

Captain Henk Brink,  his wife Evelien, and Major Willem Hageman, an F-16 squadron commander in the Royal Dutch Air Force comprised the three person crew.

They departed from St. John’s in Newfoundland, Canada just before midnight on Saturday and touched down in a Dutch wheat field 51 hours and 14 minutes later.

In the Youtube video (Dutch language only, linked at the bottom of this post) Henk explained their near disastrous ending  to the journey:  sudden swirling winds made the balloon tilt to one side, at quite an angle to the gondola,  this in turn meant that the heat from the burners went up the outside of the balloon and they lost a lot of height very quickly. Since the balloon at that moment was close to crossing over the town of Velsen close to Amsterdam, they had to make a decision about how best to avert a crash landing in the town centre.

(photograph © Kiwidutch)

(photograph © Kiwidutch)

They carried bags of lead balls as ballast, the usual method of using these was to toss out handfuls of these balls at a time, but since their situation at that point was dire and time was of the essence, the decision was taken to dump 19 bags in their entirety.

Two of these bags crashed through a roof of a steel plant and another through the roof of a fish factory, amazingly no one was hurt but damage caused was considerable.

The drama was not over however: on landing the gondola of the balloon flipped end over end, and whilst Willem and Evelien were securely strapped in, Henk wasn’t and he was thrown out into the field, injuring his hips.

After being airlifted to hospital and checks done, it was pronounced that nothing serious was broken, he just had to rest for a while since his hips were badly bruised.

The flight broke the record of 53 hours for a transatlantic crossing, marked the first time that Europeans had made the crossing and Evelien became the first woman to make the crossing in a balloon.

In essence this text is my translation of the Dutch commentary in the video, even if you don’t speak any Dutch, it is well worth going to time stamp 04.36 in the video where the view from the edge of space, the amazing curvature of the earth is a wonder to behold.
They also talk about needing to descend to 10 000 metres before getting into busy European airspace, it required a special maneuver where they needed to all wear their parachutes for safety reasons.

I’m guessing that that was a nerve wracking part of the trip! Four F14 fighter jet colleagues greeted them as they crossed the border.
I read in the information here that the balloon itself was 15 stories high and the gondola /lifeboat is not your average balloon wicker basket size either, so I can see why they were concerned about crashing into the town of Velsen. It just goes to show that air craft come in all shapes and sizes, even 15 stories high!

(photograph © Kiwidutch)

(photograph © Kiwidutch)

(photograph © Kiwidutch)

(photograph © Kiwidutch)

(photograph © Kiwidutch)

(photograph © Kiwidutch)

(photograph © Kiwidutch)

(photograph © Kiwidutch)

February 27, 2017

I Discover My Inner Militaria Geek…

(photograph © Kiwidutch)

(photograph © Kiwidutch)

The aircraft hall in Texel’s Air Force and War Museum is a delight to anyone interested in history,  aircraft, militaria, local history and wartime events.

Not at first thinking that interest in these topics would apply to me,  I find that in fact most of them do: I am least interested in the types of aircraft, but the more and more I learn about the rest the more fascinated I become.

I love the detail in some things too,  the embroidered insignia of uniforms, design of medals and the like, and now living in Europe, have a new appreciation for the events that my parents, grand and great grandparents lived though.

These events shaped them as people, and as a nation, and explains in part the difference in mentality between them and others of their generation, say in New Zealand who were less personally touched by war.

It gives me new eyes on the events of today and the plight of others in the world who find their countries in turmoil. I am for accepting genuine people in need from war torn countries, and for making wealth, education and work opportunity in the world more evenly distributed so that migration for economic reasons might no longer be seen to be a necessity.

Realistically, I can not depose leaders or solve civil unrest, but if we all work together a little, then I can hope for a better world for my children. One of the things I learned whilst living in the Netherlands is that KLM (Royal Dutch Airlines) is the oldest airline in the world, and Schipol airport the oldest airport. There is a model of Schipol in its origional from here… I love the detail of the little planes on the runway, a reminder of how vastly air travel is today. There is so much to see here, let’s keep looking…

(photograph © Kiwidutch)

(photograph © Kiwidutch)

(photograph © Kiwidutch)

(photograph © Kiwidutch)

(photograph © Kiwidutch)

(photograph © Kiwidutch)

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(photograph © Kiwidutch)

(photograph © Kiwidutch)

(photograph © Kiwidutch)

(photograph © Kiwidutch)

(photograph © Kiwidutch)

(photograph © Kiwidutch)

February 26, 2017

Suddenly We Enter A Large Aircraft Hall…

Visiting the Air Force and War Museum in Texel, Himself and I suddenly find ourselves in a large hall full of all sorts of aircraft. It is so large and so full of items that I know that I will have no hope to walk around it all. Instead of trying, I start by talking a photographs as far around me as possible. Here is a photographic over view of what I saw…

(photograph © Kiwidutch)

(photograph © Kiwidutch)

(photograph © Kiwidutch)

(photograph © Kiwidutch)

(photograph © Kiwidutch)

(photograph © Kiwidutch)

(photograph © Kiwidutch)

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(photograph © Kiwidutch)

(photograph © Kiwidutch)

(photograph © Kiwidutch)

(photograph © Kiwidutch)

(photograph © Kiwidutch)

(photograph © Kiwidutch)

February 24, 2017

Delight To Detail Fanatic And Historian Alike…

(photograph © Kiwidutch)

(photograph © Kiwidutch)

Sometimes you go past something in a museum, and then something about the item attracts your eye and you go back for a closer look.

Such was the case when Himself and I visited Texel’s Air Force and War Museum.

The item in question was a poster, that according to the title, ” Nederland in oorlogstijd”  (the Netherlands in wartime) and depicts the events in the nation between 1940 and 1945.

The  smaller pictures around the central map are miniature artworks in themselves and taken as a whole, they tell a story about the war.

There are (just) too many photographs for one post, so I will split them into two.

The other half will be posted tomorrow. I have translated the small text of the “story” into English and put them into as logical order as possible (they form a square around the central map and were not numbered.) These are beautiful, and a delight to the detail fanatic and historian alike…
The small pictures…

And where-ever you went the Gestapo was present…

(photograph © Kiwidutch)

(photograph © Kiwidutch)

The respect for another persons home was not honoured by the enemies gun

(photograph © Kiwidutch)

(photograph © Kiwidutch)

And brothers who spoke our language were doomed with a star

(photograph © Kiwidutch)

(photograph © Kiwidutch)

The work offered by the enemy was accompanied by whip and bullets

(photograph © Kiwidutch)

(photograph © Kiwidutch)

Many anguished sighs were heard near the barbed wire of  Vught  (Kiwi’s note: Vought was a Dutch concentration camp)

(photograph © Kiwidutch)

(photograph © Kiwidutch)

The heart of the nation was angry and sad because of the murder of Rotterdam

(photograph © Kiwidutch)

(photograph © Kiwidutch)

The sacred word and prayer supported moral resistance

(photograph © Kiwidutch)

(photograph © Kiwidutch)

People gathered with determination the arms for the freedom struggle

(photograph © Kiwidutch)

(photograph © Kiwidutch)

Silent as a quiet rumour, messages were sent through the air

(photograph © Kiwidutch)

(photograph © Kiwidutch)

The press, working away from the enemy always offered the free printed word

(photograph © Kiwidutch)

(photograph © Kiwidutch)

To be continued…

February 20, 2017

A Battery That Depicts A Nation At War…

(photograph © Kiwidutch)

(photograph © Kiwidutch)

My next post from Texel’s Air Force and War museum is all about the remains and former parts of the defensive batteries that were built around the region during World War II.

There are two main information boards that go with a series of quite amazing models, made by a “B. van Leersum” they show all of the defenses as they would have been in 1940.

If I am totally honest I am curious about the models but less knowledgeable about the technical details that go with them, so I have written up the information that went with the display, and will leave my dear readers to hopefully make better sense of it than I did.

The North Battery
This was called by the Germans the “Marine Battery Eierland”, “Nordbatterie” or “Batterie Texl-Nord”   and was located near Marker Pole No. 28. 

The battery was operational as early as 1940 and was used to fire on the channel between Texel and Vlieland. The weaponry consisted of three 15cm cannon, originating from the former Dutch coast battery of Den Hoorn.

On the outer dunes, three open firing positions were built for it. Later on in the war this battery formed part of the Atlantic Wall.  Four more advanced 10.5 cm cannon and concrete bunkers were also installed together with a command post bunker with aiming equipment.

In the dunes behind these bunkers there were a number of smaller bunkers, among others for ammunition storage and to house soldiers etc.
After the war the bunkers suffered from coastal erosion and some even fell onto the beach. They were a risk for coastal sea defenses, so they were demolished,  and therefore why there is not much left today.
This model shows the situation of 1944 with the three foundations of the 15 cm weapons, the four cannon bunkers with the 10.5cm cannon and the command post bunkers.’

(photograph © Kiwidutch)

(photograph © Kiwidutch)

” Coast Battery Den Hoorn
This Dutch battery of  3 x 15L35  was constructed 1938-39 in the dunes near the village of Den Hoorn but was part of the “position of Den Helder” which formed a defense around Den Helder to protect the strategically important navy post and the Texel channel.

This battery consisted of the following constructions: Command Post, three firing positions which were also used as ammunition storage, an ammunition lift, a waiting room for soldiers, staff accommodation, three measuring posts and a workroom.
This battery was made for indirect firing so that the cannon did not have to be positioned on the outer dunes. From the command post and the three measuring posts, the distance and the direction of the target were defined.

This information was passed on to the workroom  where with the help of a type of mechanical computer, the data was transformed into aiming information for the soldiers manning the cannon.

German occupiers repositioned the cannon as early as 1940 to the north battery, the command bunker was still used for observation. The command post on the Loodsmansduin, the  three firing positions in the nature reserve de Bollenkamer  and the southern measuring post near  beach post number 8 in the inner dunes are still present.

This model shows the parts of the battery that are mentioned.”

The Second World War was very far away from my family in New Zealand, and yet uncomfortably close for my Dutch family members. Looking at things like this helps me to try and make sense of the things that they went through, what occupation of their country was like and how the experiences of those times shaped and changed a nation.  It’s a sobering time in Dutch history, a catastrophic time in world history … where the battery didn’t just apply to these structures being built, but also to the battery that the country was taking.

(photograph © Kiwidutch)

(photograph © Kiwidutch)

(photograph © Kiwidutch)

(photograph © Kiwidutch)

(photograph © Kiwidutch)

(photograph © Kiwidutch)

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(photograph © Kiwidutch)

(photograph © Kiwidutch)

(photograph © Kiwidutch)

February 19, 2017

Georgian Knights Of Old And Tales Of Chivalry…

(photograph © Kiwidutch)

(photograph © Kiwidutch)

One of the next exhibits that we see in the Air Force and War Museum on Texel is an unexpected but beautiful set of Georgian artifacts.

The information next to it tells us:
“Beginning May 1999 the head of the Georgian Orthodox church,  Ilja II, visited Texel.

On 3rd May he paid a visit to the museum to view the exhibit devoted to the “Georgian uprising”.

As a gift he brought with him an oil painting and a special book. The painting  shows the “old Tbilisi”, the capital of Georgia, and the book describes part of the Georgian church history.

The gold plaque in the center of the exhibition depicts a knight in a panther skin, and another information board tells us that this is part of one of Georgia’s Epic Stories :

“In the epic story Rustaveli talks about matters such as love, chivalry, courage and friendship.

Although the epic story is written in Georian, the heroes come from other countries: Arabia, India and China.

The knight in the Panther Skin tells the story of the arabian  nobelman Avtandil who is sent by his lover and also the ruler of arabia Tinatin, to find the mysterious knight in the panther skin.

After searching for three years Avtandil finds the knight who happens to be the indian prince Tariel and they become friends.

Tariel tells Avtandil that his lover Nestan-Daredjan is kept prisoner by devils / evil spirits in a fort. There is a passionate quest to find Daredjan and to free her.

At the end of the story there is a double wedding: the Royal wedding of Tariel and Nestan-Darejan, and that of Avtandil and Queen Tinatin.”

This is an unexpected find about the Georgian country and culture and tells us something interesting and fun that I would otherwise have had very little chance of coming across since Georgia is not in the mainstream media very much. The detail fanatic in me is also delighted by the gold-work in the picture… and added to this, who doesn’t enjoy a good story?

(photograph © Kiwidutch)

(photograph © Kiwidutch)

(photograph © Kiwidutch)

(photograph © Kiwidutch)

(photograph © Kiwidutch)

(photograph © Kiwidutch)

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(photograph © Kiwidutch)

(photograph © Kiwidutch)

(photograph © Kiwidutch)

(photograph © Kiwidutch)

(photograph © Kiwidutch)

February 18, 2017

A Mine Of Unexpected Information…

(photograph © Kiwidutch)

(photograph © Kiwidutch)

Himself and I, visiting the Air Force and War Museum on Texel back in the Easter of 2016, learned more and more about the regions wartime history with every step around the museum.

Several display boards filled with photographs tell us all about the deportation of younger men, in order to work under the occupying forces.

The text reads: “Beginning in November 1944, every male on Texel between the ages of 17 and 40 had to report to the former “zeevaartschool” (marine academy). On the 11th November, 806 men left the island in two groups.

The first group had to walk from Den Helder, via Hyppolytushoef, via the Afsluitdijk to Witmarsum, where they could sleep before walking to Leeuwarden.

The second group went by the ferry boat “Mars diep” to Harlingen and then also walked to Leeuwarden. Both groups had to deal with storm, cold, rain and snow.

At the Leeuwarden train station both groups were put onto a train to Assen. Here, they were housed in different buildings, including the Meester de Visserschool and the Agricultural school and at the “Port Natal” estate.

(photograph © Kiwidutch)

(photograph © Kiwidutch)

The men had to work for the German “Organisation Todt” in strengthening the so-called “Westwall”. This was one of the many lines of defense raised by the Germans as a response to the advancing allies.

Eventually all men returned safely back to the island.”
There are so many exhibits here that it would be impossible to give you a close up of all the photographs or a English text of them all… needless to say we both learned a massive amount and could not recommend a visit highly enough to anyone interested in history and local events.

We also learned to our complete surprise: “British-Indian troops arrived on Texel in the Spring of 1943 as Second Battalion of the 950e Infantry Regiment (II./ind.I.R.950).

They were taken prisoner in North Africa and later joined the German army.  The Battalion was used on Texel in coastal defense (the “Atlantic Wall”).

Because the Germans had doubts about the effectiveness of the Indian troops during the Dutch winter, they were replaced in the autumn by part of the  803 North-Caucasian Infantry Battalion.

The Sikhs in the regiment were allowed to wear a turban, as can be seen in some of the photos. The used it to keep their hair bound up, as they were not allowed to cut it off due to their religion.” Details like this are not generally known outside of local war records. We continue to discover so many new things…

(photograph © Kiwidutch)

(photograph © Kiwidutch)

(photograph © Kiwidutch)

(photograph © Kiwidutch)

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(photograph © Kiwidutch)

February 17, 2017

A Relaxed Posting, If Only There Hadn’t Been A War On…

Himself and I are at Texel’s Air Force and War Museum. The island was of course subject to the German occupation during World War II along with the rest of the country. That said, little fighting was seen here so it was a rather relaxed posting for the occupying forces, something reflected in these photographs. This part of the exhibition covers some of the time during the second world war, it’s a very different view when compared to other exhibitions I have seen, for instance of bombed out areas of  Rotterdam and parts of The Hague. It’s also a very different view to what my father experienced as a child living in The Hague. Let’s take a look…

(photograph © Kiwidutch)

(photograph © Kiwidutch)

(photograph © Kiwidutch)

(photograph © Kiwidutch)

(photograph © Kiwidutch)

(photograph © Kiwidutch)

(photograph © Kiwidutch)

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(photograph © Kiwidutch)

(photograph © Kiwidutch)

November 25, 2016

Stepping Stones Of Cabbages Lead To Jail…

(photograph © Kiwidutch)

(photograph © Kiwidutch)

Sometimes your local history lesson can be found directly under your feet.

Such was the case when Little Mr and I visited Gouda to fulfil his wish to go to the Playtoday Lego shop.

Whilst he was only interested in the Lego, I cast my eye around me for the details that give a city it’s character and I didn’t have to look long.

Dotted around us and inlaid into the brickwork of this pedestrian shopping street, were some interesting round cast plaques.

I was puzzled when it became obvious that the first one had broccoli on it, then came all sorts of varieties of cabbages.

Little Mr. was impatient to leave and the plaques stretched a long way further down the street, further than I could manage, so it was a sort of “snap and go” sort of mission, but I got as many as I could in the immediate area.

There was text around some of the plaques and since they had been there along time, dirt from the street had built up, obscuring most of the images and making the text almost impossible to read. I enlarged the photographs on the computer to try and make out individual letters and words, trying to string together something that made sense. Suddenly we made out the word “Warmoesstenen” and it all started to make sense. Himself explained to me that “warremoes” was a very old fashioned Dutch term, and went and looked it up.

It turns out that the more modern word for it is “warmoes” and the text around the broccoli tells us that this ” is the term for a mash made out of vegetable scraps, usually food for prisoners.”

The other part of the word: “stenen” means stones (i.e. these inlaid plaque stones).The next text says: ” Na negeren van een bevel verstoren van de openbare orde of bedreigen van de baljuw volgde berechting” , which translates as: “After ignoring an order, disturbance of public order or threatening a baliff, the court would then pass sentance.”

(photograph © Kiwidutch)

(photograph © Kiwidutch)

Following image text: ” De uitspraak van het stedelijk gerecht leiden tot boetes, gevangenschap, verbanning of tot de galg“,  which means: “The decision of the city court results in fines, imprisonment, exile / deportation or the gallows”

(photograph © Kiwidutch)

(photograph © Kiwidutch)

Around the next plaque the words are all for vegetable and cabbage types: “spruit” (sprouts), “koolrabi” (kohlrabi, a.k.a. turnip cabbage), “savooi” (savoy), “radijs” (radish), “paksoi” (bok choi), “koolraap” (swede / swedish turnip), “rammenas” (winter radish), “spitskool” (conical cabbage), “raap” (turnip / swede), “chinese kool” pronounced “shin-A’s-coal” (chinese cabbage) and “raapstelen” (turnip tops).

(photograph © Kiwidutch)

(photograph © Kiwidutch)

Then I discovered some information about who has placed these here: “De warremoesstenen zijn een schenking van het 100 jarige Goudse Vuurvast NV aan de gemente Gouda”.The “warremoes” stones are a gift from the “Gouda Vuurvast Company to the municipality of Gouda (to mark the occasion of Vuurvast’s 100 year centenary).”

(Side note from Kiwi: The Vuurvast company makes refractory materials that keeps their strength under high temperature. Their products are used in the iron, steel and glass industries to make molds and crucibles and also to make deflectors for rocket launch structures). Once I knew the name of the company who made and gifted these stones I also found the following information (links as usual at the bottom of my post.) The illustration on this stone is Vuurvast’s (literally: “fire fast”) company logo.

The sites were in Dutch so I translated for you:” Warmoes stones: Up until 1845 the landscape of the Lange Tiendeweg in Gouda was dominated by the Warmoespoort, a bridge with in-built cell space for prisoners.The bridge was named after the remains of cabbage leaves that was the prisoners food. One hundred “stepping stones” set into the Long Tiendeweg have been used to build a picture of this historical past near the center of Gouda.

(photograph © Kiwidutch)

(photograph © Kiwidutch)

The following stone appears to never have had text on it because the image runs completely off the edges. If the Vuurvast Company celebrated it’s 100th Centenary in 2009 then these have been here for seven years now, hence the build up of grime.

(photograph © Kiwidutch)

(photograph © Kiwidutch)

The next text  around the sprouts consists of random words: “vlooken” (to swear), “smijten” (to chuck / to throw), “razen” (furious / rage), “spuwen” (to spit / old fashioned form of  the modern word “spugen” = to spit), “schelden” (scold), “tieren” (rant).

(photograph © Kiwidutch)

(photograph © Kiwidutch)

De cipier kreeg 35 cent per arrestant voor de voeding en genoot een inkomen van 75 guilden per jaar.” (The jailer received 35 cents per prisoner for food and enjoyed an income of 75 gulden per year).

(photograph © Kiwidutch)

(photograph © Kiwidutch)

Brassicaceae: brassica campestris var pekinensis (kruisbloemenfamilie: Chinese kool)” (Brassicaceae: brassica campestris from pekinensis (cabbage family: Chinese cabbage)

(photograph © Kiwidutch)

(photograph © Kiwidutch)

Bij inschrijving voor afbraak te verkoopen: de TIENDWEGSPOORT. aan het einde van den Langen Tiendeweg.” (Selling upon demolition, register at the Tiendweg gate, end of the Long Tiendeweg.) In the center it says: ” OPENBARE VERKOOPING 20 November 1854“, (PUBLIC SALE 20 November 1854)
… which makes no sense to me, especially the date! It appears then that maybe these were only meant to be temporary and that people could register to buy them later… but the date is 1854 …which makes us all just a tad late!

(photograph © Kiwidutch)

(photograph © Kiwidutch)

Here are some of the other stones (duplicate in image to the above, so that you can see the wear and tear…)

(photograph © Kiwidutch)

(photograph © Kiwidutch)

(photograph © Kiwidutch)

(photograph © Kiwidutch)

(photograph © Kiwidutch)

(photograph © Kiwidutch)

(photograph © Kiwidutch)

(photograph © Kiwidutch)

(photograph © Kiwidutch)

(photograph © Kiwidutch)

(photograph © Kiwidutch)

(photograph © Kiwidutch)

(photograph © Kiwidutch)

(photograph © Kiwidutch)

(photograph © Kiwidutch)

(photograph © Kiwidutch)

(photograph © Kiwidutch)

(photograph © Kiwidutch)

(photograph © Kiwidutch)

(photograph © Kiwidutch)

(photograph © Kiwidutch)

(photograph © Kiwidutch)

(photograph © Kiwidutch)

(photograph © Kiwidutch)

(photograph © Kiwidutch)

(photograph © Kiwidutch)

(photograph © Kiwidutch)

(photograph © Kiwidutch)

(photograph © Kiwidutch)

(photograph © Kiwidutch)

Gouda Vuurvast Services

More about the history of Gouda Vuurvast (Note:Dutch language only)
 The Gouda “Warmoes” Stones.

 

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