Local Heart, Global Soul

August 30, 2017

Showing Some Amazing Flexibility…

Filed under: GOUDA,Historical,PHOTOGRAPHY,THE NETHERLANDS — kiwidutch @ 1:00 am
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(photograph © Kiwidutch)

Having found the site of the Gouda’s Molenwerf and (rather disassembled) Motte of yesterdays post, I find myself passing a small garden.

My destination at this moment though, was to find the house behind the motte that had the fish ornamentation   which was at the back.

The only way to it was via two small bridges on a tight curve. Having photographed the “fish house” I turn my lens to a building directly opposite it, one that can not fail to capture a visitors attention.

It’s quirky leanings had me wondering about  structural integrity and how on earth it was possible for a small building to be leaning out at the spot over the doorway and leaning in at the end of the same wall just a short distance away.

This is what  building would look like if it were drunk. It also looked like someone thin, frail and elderly who bends at the knees, and has at the same time hunched shoulders. That said, here is probably nothing thin about the walls in a building this old. Thick walls were standard in the 1600’s and this buildings stout construction helps it to bend when age and subsidence crept into it’s bones.

I am delighted to find that here is an information plaque on the side of the building, but as usual, only in Dutch,  translated here Thanks to Himself (I was tired and making mistakes).

The name of this building is “het Tapijthuis” (which literally means “carpet house’). “This late medieval building owes it’s name to the Flemish weavers who fled at the end of the 16th century to the northern part of the Netherlands (from an area that is now present day Belgium). In buildings such as these they continued their work where they left off when they had to flee. Later, in the 17th century,  it housed one of thekloppenscholenfrom Gouda. 

Aklopjeis a woman who does the work of a nun but who is not a nun herself.  (teaching, visiting sick etc) Such catholic schools were prohibited, but the city council  in Gouda did not enforce that rule. At regular intervals the church council of the adjacent St Jans church (Protestant) asked for the school to be closed, but in vain. At a later stage it housed a brewery and after that, the auction house of the father of the writer Herman de Man.

It’s interesting to see that in a time when relations between Protestants and Catholics was fractious, that some people and organisations such as the city council of the time exercised common sense. They must have seen the good work in the community done by these “klopje” women and found that this contribution overruled the pesterings and annoyance of the St Jans church council.

This Catholic / Protestant divide is a theme that I will expand upon in a future post,  since I have discovered some quirky information about this that is bizarre when seen from a non-European perspective. That however is for another day. (Soon!). The occupants and use of ” het Tapijthuis” changed greatly with the times and so over the centuries this building has both literally and figuratively shown some amazing flexibility.

(photograph © Kiwidutch)

(photograph © Kiwidutch)

(photograph © Kiwidutch)

(photograph © Kiwidutch)

(photograph © Kiwidutch)

This last photograph if the rear of the building…

(photograph © Kiwidutch)

August 29, 2017

A Water Course Of Course…

Filed under: GOUDA,Historical,PHOTOGRAPHY,THE NETHERLANDS — kiwidutch @ 1:00 am
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(photograph © Kiwidutch)

My next stop at the back of St Jans Church in Gouda, is called “Molenwerf en Motte“.

There is a substantial building here and attached an Information board in Dutch.

Translated into English it reads: “”Molenwerf en Motte”.

In the 12th century there was a fortification at this location: a round, several meters high wall, a so called “motte”.

To the east of it, up to the Groeneweg was a major courtyard and homestead with living quarters stables, grainery and such.

To the west of the ‘burchtheuvel” (man made mound /motte) were the buildings forming the ‘voorhofstede” (buildings situated just before the homestead).

All of this belonged to the Lords van der Goude, the Lords of the city of Gouda.

Also a private chapel on the location of the current St Jans Church formed part of their domain.

The city of Gouda grew around this borough. The high motte itself was only used in times of war and flooding, the first dikes were only made in the 12th century. The motte and the homestead were destroyed as a resut of war,  probably in 1304.  Later on houses were constructed in the area and on the motte, a mill was built. That’s why the current road, that goes straight over the motte, which was removed in 1369 is therefore called “Molenwerf”. The old fortification can still be slightly recognised by the slightly higher circular moat. The molenwerf crosses it on two little  bridges. ”

(photograph © Kiwidutch)

(photograph © Kiwidutch)

Underneath the illustration there is more text, which translated says:

(photograph © Kiwidutch)

In yellow letters parts of the possession of the Lords van der Goude
1,2,3; 14th century precursors  precursors to the city Hall (location is approximate)
4 and 5: 14th century house of local priest and latin School (location is approximate)
6: 14th century Catharina Gasthuis (hospital) on the location of the previous annexes to the homestead.

(photograph © Kiwidutch)

You are standing here
Probable old water course
–    Watercourse

(photograph © Kiwidutch)

(photograph © Kiwidutch)

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(photograph © Kiwidutch)

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(photograph © Kiwidutch)

August 10, 2017

Gouda Stadhuis: Disastrous Beginnings Lead To A Gem…

(photograph © Kiwidutch)

‘In the Middle Ages the Van der Goude family built a settlement and fortified castle alongside the banks of the Gouwe River, and it is from this that the city of Gouda took its name.

Located on the Market Square Gouda’s fifteenth century “Stadhuis” (town hall) is one of the oldest Gothic town halls in the Netherlands. 

In the summer of 1438, a devastating fire reduced Gouda almost to ashes.

The wooden town hall was very badly damaged.

The town council decided that the new town hall should be a freestanding stone building, well away from other buildings in order to protect it from the danger of future fires.

A market field, little more than a peat bog was bought and in 1448 construction began, having been postponed many times due to the  poor financial situation of Gouda city.

One of the stonemasons was Jan III Keldermans, a member of a Brabant family of architects Keldermans from Mechelen. The building was built from Belgian limestone.

The foundation did not use piles as was common in many places, but rather frames of heavy oak beams.

Construction was officially completed with the completion of the turret in 1459 but the building was already in use after 1450. 

According to the historian Walvis, the town hall was surrounded by water by 1603 and could be reached by means of a bridge. In that year (1603), the current renaissance style borders were made by the city sculptor Gregorius Cool.

During 1692-1697 a major refurbishment took place again and the present stone scaffold built at the back of the town hall. Before that time there had already been a scaffold made of wood for public executions at the town hall as evidenced in texts as far back as 1525.

Until 1897 access to the scaffold was made by means of a wooden staircase on the outside of the town hall. It was not permitted to walk prisoners inside the Stadhuis.‘  The information was not available in English so I translated it from the Dutch wiki page. This is a beautiful building with a long history… the events that have happened during it’s time here, if only the walls could speak. Even better this is just the back side of the building. As you can see, the Dutch weather varied considerably between visits, in the last photograph I like to think that the clouds were tying to emulate the “stepped” roof of the building!

(photograph © Kiwidutch)

(photograph © Kiwidutch)

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Wikipedia:  Gouda Stadhuis  (City Hall) / (Dutch language)

August 9, 2017

A Very Fishy Feude…

Filed under: ART,GOUDA,Historical,PHOTOGRAPHY,Stone Carving,THE NETHERLANDS — kiwidutch @ 1:00 am
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(photograph © Kiwidutch)

If you think that neighbourly disputes are a new phenomenon then you would be very much mistaken.

Next to “de Waag” (Weigh house) in Gouda is a large white building called “de Zalm” (The Salmon) and a permanent reminder of the neighbourly dispute between the two that took place in 1670 is set into the wall of “de Zalm’ that faces “de Waag“.

There is an information plaque on the wall but it’s only in Dutch so I’ve translated it into English.

The text is also a little bit higgledy piggledy so I’ve added some information so it makes sense and then marked out the original translated text in italics.

With the construction of the “de Waag” by famous architect Pieter Post, and in order ‘to guarantee the prestige of their new building, the city council demanded that it’s height become a benchmark for other buildings in the area.

The roof of the adjacent building,  the Inn called “de Zalm”, built in 1670 was required to be at least 6 feet lower than the Waag (also completed in 1670) according to city government regulations, much to the displeasure of it’s owner.

  This displeasure is recorded in stone with a picture of an angry looking salmon and the text (in old Dutch:)”Niet te hooch niet te laech van passe’, which means ‘not too high not too low, just right’.” It’s certainly a statement that the owner may have been forced to comply with the regulations but he didn’t have to like it.

(photograph © Kiwidutch)

My weird sense of humour gives me a thought: what if all of today’s neighbourly disputes were recorded in such a way too? You (and your descendants) could walk around a neighbourhood and have a laugh at all of the petty things that get on people’s nerves.

I’d love to see walking tours that visit the houses of ” yappy dog, tall trees, untidy gardens, noxious weeds, party house” disputes and see appropriate pictures in stone with a well thought out text below. It might also make people realise that life is short and that many of these disputes could be settled amicably.

Strangely, benieth the text relevant to “de Zalm” is another paragraph that relates to, and in my opinion would be better included with other information plaques for, “de Waag“.

Again it’s only in Dutch, and even though it’s completely unrelated to the story of “de Zalm“, I will translate it here in case visitors find the Dutch and go looking for a translation. ”

‘The Gouda historian Ignatius Walvis  reports that for “de Waag”  to be built, several buildings on, or very close to the market were bought and demolished. The upper floor of  “de Waag’ was not important for the weighing and was used from 1668 to 1907 by the Gouda weapons / firearms  store.

Thereafter the space was used in succession as an exhibition room, Vet’s office, office of  a cleaning service,  local tourist office and a branch of the Dutch dairy board. Since 1995  “de Waag” has housed the Gouda Cheese museum (formerly known as the Gouda Cheese and Professional Craft Trades museum)’

I then found further information about “de Zalm” on a Wikipedia page (but in Dutch only.) Interestingly, “de Zalm” Restaurant’s own page does not appear to have a history page at all. I have translated the Wikipedia page:

‘In 1551 this inn had gone by the names of ‘de Oude Salm” (Old Salmon) or “de Vergulde Salm” (the Gilt Salm).

The owner feared that  the building of  “de Waag” (Weigh house) would overshadow his establishment so decided to build a new (and bigger) Inn. The city council permitted this but under strict regulations.’

‘The Inn was required to be six feet lower than “de Waag“. Displeased with this the innkeeper has laid down this requirement in 1670  with the text: Niet te hooch niet te laech van passe’,  (not too high, not too low, just right).

The premises has held a catering / hospitality function from 1551 until the present day, and could be the oldest inn in North and South Holland.  “de Zalm” was also an important station for the postal service between Amsterdam and Antwerp in the 19th century. To this end, a horse stable was built behind the hotel, which was converted into a “pannenkoeke” (pancake) restaurant in the 20th century.

On 5th May 1945, the District Commander of the National Armed Forces made the proclamation in “de Zalm” that the war was over and transferred power over the city. The liberation of Gouda was thus official. The building is listed as a Dutch national monument.  Finally, I notice that another fish has been added to “de Zalm’s” wall. It is two thirds of the way up, and an advertisement for the establishment. In a small twist, this fish has a smile instead of a frown: maybe the message is that after almost 350 years the feud is over?

(photograph © Kiwidutch)

(photograph © Kiwidutch)

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(photograph © Kiwidutch)

(photograph © Kiwidutch)

Wikipedia: “de Waag” (Weigh House) / Gouda/ The Netherlands / (Dutch text only)
Wikipedia: “de Zalm” (the salmon) / Gouda/ The Netherlands / (Dutch text only)
Brasserie – Bar / De Zalm  (The Salmon) / Gouda

July 24, 2017

A Stock Issue Of Houses And Barns…

(photograph © Kiwidutch)

Driving through Flevoland,  the Netherland’s newest province, we see some of the newest farmland in the world.

Work started in the 1930’s reclaiming land from the sea, and in the 1940’s and 50’s the polders took shape.

Then as mentioned in yesterday’s post, on 1st January 1986  the joining of the southern and eastern Flevopolders created the new province.

The farms and their out buildings were put in as the farm land took shape, government assistance meant that stock to a set pattern of both houses and barns were laid down, bringing  a distinct conformity of style as we drive the length of the polder.

This gives this area it’s own character, the style might not be modern in the newest sense or old in the centuries old style of much of the country but with the surrounding space and large gardens that these farms enjoy there is no doubting that these must be beautiful places to live.

(photograph © Kiwidutch)

(photograph © Kiwidutch)

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July 9, 2017

Texture And History…

Filed under: Historical,PHOTOGRAPHY,Schokland,THE NETHERLANDS — kiwidutch @ 1:00 am
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On Schokland I find yet another example of the centuries old sea defenses. The history and texture are evident.

(photograph © Kiwidutch)

(photograph © Kiwidutch)

(photograph © Kiwidutch)

(photograph © Kiwidutch)

(photograph © Kiwidutch)

(photograph © Kiwidutch)

(photograph © Kiwidutch)

(photograph © Kiwidutch)

Wikipedia (partial English translation of Dutch Wiki site)/ Schokland /Flevaland / The Netherlands.

July 4, 2017

An Idea Engraved In Stone…

Filed under: Flevoland,Historical,PHOTOGRAPHY,Schokland,THE NETHERLANDS — kiwidutch @ 1:00 am
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(photograph © Kiwidutch)

During my walk around the Schokland World Heritage site last year, I found beautiful things literally in the ground around me.

First there were stones, starting to get a covering of moss and lichen, full of texture, but then I saw several rows of stones of an entirely different sort.

Gravestones, a few that were probably in their original place, forming a neat line not too far from the church.

Close to another building lay three long rows of gravestone fragments, many with the inscriptions too worn or damaged to read, but a few were there with legible names and dates, most from the 1600’s.

I know that flooding often destroys graveyards so I think it may be safe to assume that these stones have been broken up this way.

I find old headstones interesting, I always wonder about the character of the person named and laid to rest: were they prominent people? what did they do in life? What did their life look like? Do they have living descendants? I wonder what some of these people would make of the idea that visitors are admiring their gravestones four hundred years after their lives ended? I hope they would be pleased that they have not been forgotten.  That idea… engraved in stone?

(photograph © Kiwidutch)

(photograph © Kiwidutch)

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I rotated the previous photograph so that the text is slightly more legible…

(photograph © Kiwidutch)

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Wikipedia (partial English translation of Dutch Wiki site)/  Schokland /Flevaland / The Netherlands.

July 1, 2017

Turning The Tide On The Tides…

Filed under: Flevoland,Historical,PHOTOGRAPHY,Schokland,THE NETHERLANDS — kiwidutch @ 1:00 am
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(photograph © Kiwidutch)

My last post about the history of Schokland is all about how  in the 1930’s, the Dutch started a large scale fight-back against the sea.

This would involve almost closing off a huge area of coastline and creating new areas of land on a scale never seen before.

The creation of this land completely encircled Schokland and left it as a tiny raised island bump in a sea of flat land, the more ironic becuase the flat land is literally the former sea bottom.

The information text tells us:
“Shipping in the Zuider Zee is not without it’s danger. Over the centuries many ships have been lost.

After the reclamation of the North East Polder dozens of ship wrecks are discovered on the bottom. Many have been excavated in the meantime. Others are still laying under the ground awaiting examination.

The results of the excavations can be extensively viewed at the National Museum or Marine Archaeology in East Flevoland.” “Schokland is of an important orientation point for shipping in the Zuider Zee. It lies at the estuary of the IJssel river and on one of the busiest shipping routes in the country. The lighthouses on the island are of vital importance to the shipmasters. In bad weather ships can find shelter against the rushing waves on the east side of the island.” “South-east of the polder village Kraggenburg a lighthouse stands in the centre of the landscape, idle and without function. This building stood in the middle of the sea before construction of the North East Polder. It was built in the 19th century at the end of two dams, which are kilometres long, and which lie in the Zuider Zee at the mouth of the Zwarte Water river.

(photograph © Kiwidutch)

A beacon on the top of the lighthouse ensured that ships were piloted safely through the channel between the dams. After the reclamation the terp on which the lighthouse stands finds itself stranded in the North East Polder.

Like a fish out of water this hydrolic-engineering monument juts out above the surrounding flat landscape.” (Kiwi’s note: ” terp / terpen” = an artificial dwelling mound created to provide safe ground during storm surges, high tides and sea or river flooding.)

The North East Polder is drained during the Second World War. The Netherlands is occupied by the Germans. The new agricultural lands are important to food supply. The reclamation of the polder is supported from the outset by the occupying forces.

It is an enormous task. Hundreds of kilometres of ditches and canals are dug. The thousands of hectares of land are ploughed and sites made ready for building on. By the end of the war in 1945, a large part of the polder has already been made suitable for agricultural use. Once an island in the Zuider Zee. As a result of the reclamation of the North East Polder Schokland now lies permanently on the mainland. This still stands out as an elongated gently sloping back against the surrounding polder landscape. This island has been ravaged by the sea of centuries. The inhabitants fight and unremitting battle against the sea. The construction of dikes and terpen cannot prevent the island constantly becoming smaller as time goes on. Finally only a small piece of land remains.

(photograph © Kiwidutch)

With the reclamation of the North East Polder the people have finally turned the battle around in their favour. Schokland is a symbol of the unrelenting struggle by man against the water and therefore has been included on UNESCO’s cultural world heritage list.

The Zuider Zee, for centuries an unpredictable sea inlet in the Netherlands. Floods regularly sweep the coastal areas, causing many people to drown. in 1918 Parliament adopts a plan to tame the dangerous sea. The largest hydrolic-engineering project in the history of the Netherlands can begin. This “Zuider Zee Project” provided for the building of the “Afsluitdijk” (Literally: closing dike) (dam) between North-Holland and Friesland and a partial reclamation of the Zuider Zee. A large proportion has now been completed. The North East Polder makes up a part of this.

Construction of the North East Polder begins in 1936, the second polder in the plan for the partial reclamation of the Zuider Zee. Harbours and pumping stations, are built. The route for the future dike is plotted out. The construction of the ring-dike takes more than three years to complete.

In December 1940 the last closing gap in the dike is cut-off. Now the pumping -stations can begin their work. They have been busy for more than a year,  pumping millions of cubic metres of water out of the area. In 1942 the final sections of the polder are drained. Around 50,000 hectares of  new land can now be reclaimed.

The North East Polder is a design straight from the drawing board. The layout of the reclaimed land has been devised by engineers and landscape architects. 10 villages are connected to each other by means of a ring-road. Nearly all the villages have a direct connection with Emmeloord.

The agricultural ground is neatly divided up into rectangular-shaped plots of land. The regular landscape is interrupted by trees that have been planted along the side of the roads.
The Zuider Zee, for centuries an unpredictable sea inlet in the Netherlands. Floods regularly sweep the coastal areas, causing many people to drown. in 1918 Parliament adopts a plan to tame the dangerous sea. The largest hydraulic-engineering project in the history of the Netherlands can begin.

This “Zuider Zee Project” provided for the building of the “Afsluitdijk” (Literally: closing dike) (dam) between North-Holland and Friesland and a partial reclamation of the Zuider Zee. A large proportion has now been completed. The North East Polder makes up a part of this. As a result of the reclamation of the North East Polder Schokland now lies permanantly on the mainland. This still stands out as an elongated gently sloping back against the surrounding polder landscape. This island has been ravaged by the sea of centuries.

The inhabitants fight and unremitting battle against the sea. The construction of dikes and terpen cannot prevent the island constantly becoming smaller as time goes on. Finally only a small piece of land remains.  With the reclamation of the North East Polder the people have finally turned the battle around in their favour. Schokland is a symbol of the unrelenting struggle by man against the water and therefore has been included on UNESCO’s cultural world heritage list.

Ordinance measurements in the Netherlands are based on the Amsterdams Peil (Amsterdam Datum). This AP was first established in 1682 using marker stones in a number of Amsterdam sluices. This equaled the average summer high tide of the IJ. In time, AP was specified nationally, creating a fine meshed network of marker stones, tide gauges and other markers. However, during a check in 1885 many existing markers were found to have large inaccuracies. This was attributable to incorrect measurements and benchmark fluctuations. To distinguish the newly established levels from height measurements prior to the check, the name “Normaal Amsterdams Peil” (NAP) was introduced. The differences between AP and NAP are still known in many places in the Netherlands.

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“Invitation to Tender” (photograph © Kiwidutch)

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“Fish Market” (photograph © Kiwidutch)

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Wikipedia: Terp / Terpen

June 28, 2017

An Island From Swampy Beginnings…

Filed under: Flevoland,Historical,PHOTOGRAPHY,Schokland,THE NETHERLANDS — kiwidutch @ 1:00 am
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(photograph © Kiwidutch)

The Dutch “island” of Schokland is a strange story of how a swamp became land, which over millennia became almost entirely eroded away, and then due to Dutch engineering, became an “island” on land!

The museum there follows it’s story, and where better to start than the very beginning.

There are various information plaques in English, but they read like a very bad Google translate product, in some cases not even making sense.

After I had finished cringing for the hundredth time I start tidying it up, keeping the facts but trying to impart them better. Since the original information is not mine I have designated their information in italic type.

Ice Age: Around 2.5 million years ago the climate in the northern hemisphere become colder.  Continuous snowfall causes Northern Europe to be covered in a thick sheet of ice, marking the beginning of the Ice Age. Around 150,000 years ago the edge of a thick sheet of ice reached the Netherlands,  covering the northern half of the county.

Large quantities of rocks and boulder clay are transported by the ice and deposited here. In the North East Polder, Urk and Schokland these souvenirs are still laying on the surface.”

Prehistoric footprints: During an archeological dig the skeleton of a middle-aged man was discovered. The skeleton remained preserved thanks to the rise in water level. He is estimated to be 4600 years old.

The cranium had been broken by systolic pressure and the face slightly displaced. The thorax also suffered damage. On all sides, tree bark, in which the dead man was buried, is visible. Due to the extremely fragile state of the skeletal material,  the original skeleton alas disintegrated after excavation. What you see before you is a cast.”

Fishermen from Emmeloord: Between 1999 and 2001 an extensive archaeological dig was conducted on former farmland beside the A6 near Emmeloord. Many unusual finds were unearthed from the Stone and Bronze Age eras.

In prehistoric times the landscape of the present Noordoostpolder (North East Polder) consisted of reed marshes and swamp forests. The Overijsselse Vecht river flowed lazily towards the sea in various channels on the site of the dig. The perfect place for fishing. Many prehistoric fish weirs and fykes  discovered in the ground witness this fact. The ancient fykes were still in exceptional condition. They are unique in the Netherlands. It is quite likely that the “fishers of Emmeloord” lived on or close to the current “island” of Schokland, as settlement remains have been found there.”(Kiwi’s note: a “fyke” is a bag net for catching fish.)

(photograph © Kiwidutch)

Early inhabitants: On the east coast of Schokland a boulder clay bulge lies buried under sand. Thousands of years ago this was a desirable place to live. The terrain represents a natural rise in the landscape and the Vecht river flows close to it.

It is elevated, dry and large enough for the perpetration of agriculture and cattle breeding. The river provides fish and fresh water and the surrounding area offers excellent hunting grounds. In prehistoric times this spot was inhabited by man for a very long period of time.”

A geological reserve: After the reclamation of the North East Polder (a large area just north of Urk),  the area appears strewn with rocks. These are a souvenir from the Ice Age. Around 150,000 years ago huge glaciers reached the Netherlands from Scandinavia.

For a long time the edge of this ice sheet lay precisely across the area of the present day polder. Large quantities of rocks and bolder clay are transported by the ice and dumped here. Due to it’s great scientific significance, an area of 6 hectares in size is now designated as a geological reserve.”  Bronze spear head: A splendid spear head surfaced during ploughing in polder land near Tollebeek village in about 1975. This bronze age spear dates to around 1800 before Christ. It is the only one of its sort in the Netherlands.

Similar examples are only known in France and England. How this tip came to be in the ground is a puzzle. Due to its exceptional length and pretty decoration, it was probably a status symbol. The owner would have undoubtedly been careful with it. The original is still in the possession of the finder, so this spear head is a replica.”

(photograph © Kiwidutch)

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April 19, 2017

I Am In For An Unexpected Surprise…

The exhibits continue one after another at Fort Kijkduin. I am taking up the rear of our group, enjoying it all at a leisurely pace. (“Fast” is a setting I no longer have after my accident anyway). There is however something very very different just around the corner… Looks like I am in for an unexpcted surprise…

(photograph © Kiwidutch )

(photograph © Kiwidutch )

(photograph © Kiwidutch )

(photograph © Kiwidutch )

(photograph © Kiwidutch )

(photograph © Kiwidutch )

(photograph © Kiwidutch )

(photograph © Kiwidutch )

(photograph © Kiwidutch )

(photograph © Kiwidutch )

(photograph © Kiwidutch )

(photograph © Kiwidutch )

(photograph © Kiwidutch )

(photograph © Kiwidutch )

(photograph © Kiwidutch )

(photograph © Kiwidutch )

(photograph © Kiwidutch )

(photograph © Kiwidutch )

(photograph © Kiwidutch )

(photograph © Kiwidutch )

(photograph © Kiwidutch )

Den Helder: Fort Kijkduin / The Netherlands

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